Ocean Mysteries

The oceans of the world cover 71% of Earth’s surface. They are the last unexplored frontiers on our planet, holding secrets beneath their waves that we have yet to fully understand. The depths of the oceans remain less mapped and understood than the surface of the moon.

  • 80% of all life is in the ocean | Photo: Shutterstock

    80% of all life is in the ocean

    The ocean is home to much of Earth's biodiversity. It provides habitat to countless species, many of which remain undiscovered, ranging from the smallest plankton to the largest whales. This biodiversity is vital for the oceanic food web and supports human life by providing food, medicine, and ecosystem services.

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  • There’s Gold In Them There Waves | Photo: Shutterstock

    There’s Gold In Them There Waves

    Interestingly, the oceans of the world also contain significant amounts of gold, dispersed throughout their waters. It is estimated that there are about 20 million tons of gold in the ocean, diluted to a concentration of approximately 13 billionths of a gram per liter of seawater.

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  • Pressure in the Depths | Photo: Shutterstock

    Pressure in the Depths

    At the bottom of the ocean, the water pressure is immense, reaching more than 1,000 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level. This extreme pressure creates a challenging environment for life and exploration, requiring specialized equipment and adaptations for survival. The immense pressure affects the physical and chemical properties of water and materials found at these depths.

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  • Volcanic Activity | Photo: Shutterstock

    Volcanic Activity

    Most of the Earth's volcanoes are not on land but under the ocean. Most volcanic activity on Earth occurs underwater along the mid-ocean ridges, where tectonic plates are pulling apart and magma rises to form new oceanic crust. These undersea volcanoes play a critical role in the Earth's geological cycle.

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  • The Challenger Deep | Photo: Shutterstock

    The Challenger Deep

    The Challenger Deep Located in the Mariana Trench, is the deepest known point in the Earth's seabed, plunging to depths of nearly 36,000 feet. This remote and inhospitable environment is under extreme pressure, over 1,000 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level, and is home to unique life forms that have adapted to such harsh conditions.

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  • Underwater Lakes | Photo: Shutterstock

    Underwater Lakes

    Underwater lakes or brine pools are formed when saltwater, saturated with salt, becomes denser than the surrounding water and settles into depressions on the ocean floor, creating a distinct underwater lake that can be visually observed.

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  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch | Photo: Shutterstock

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is a vast expanse of floating trash, twice the size of Texas, located between Hawaii and California, is one of the most disturbing mysteries of the ocean. The patch is made up of the North Pacific Gyre, a large system of swirling ocean currents that collect plastic and other debris.

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  • Hydrothermal Vents | Photo: Shutterstock

    Hydrothermal Vents

    Hydrothermal Vents and Black Smokers Discovered in the late 20th century are cracks on the ocean floor that emit hot, mineral-rich water, creating a unique habitat for life. Black smokers, a type of hydrothermal vent, release dark clouds of mineral particles, resembling smoke. These vents support complex ecosystems that rely on chemosynthesis, a process where bacteria convert chemicals from the vent fluids into energy, forming the base of the food web in a world without sunlight.

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